";s:4:"text";s:2355:"Receptor tyrosine kinases are allosterically regulated by their cognate ligands and function as dimers. What is the function of an insulin receptor? Recent studies have suggested that RPE dysfunction is a precursor of, and contributes to, the development of diabetic retinopathy. Harish Vashisth, Cameron F. Abrams, All‐atom structural models of insulin binding to the insulin receptor in the presence of a tandem hormone‐binding element, "Proteins: Structure, Function, and Bioinformatics", 10.1002/prot.24255, 81, 6, (1017-1030), (2013). The insulin proreceptor cDNA has been cloned and its complete amino acid sequence deduced. The processed receptor is a tetramer composed of two α-subunits that bind insulin and two β-subunits that traverse the plasma membrane and are, in their cytosolic domains, protein tyrosine kinases. Insulin and insulin receptor (INSR) play a critical role in regulating cell growth through the activation of key signaling pathways involved in cell metabolism, proliferation, and survival. 35): C319-C334, 1994. The actions of insulin are mediated by an integral plasma membrane protein, the insulin receptor. In all cases but the insulin receptor (and 2 closely related receptors), these dimers are noncovalent, but insulin receptors are covalently maintained as functional dimers by disulfide bonds.