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";s:4:"text";s:3674:"Most of the important people in the Iliadhave a special epithet that serves as an extra name. Bastard children were acknowledged and honored, although they were not considered royalty. For example, a widely known story holds that Achilles was immortal, except for his heel. I will pull a few out of three of the chapters you mention. The Iliad focuses on events that take place in the tenth year of the Trojan War. The myths have some elements that are very familiar to modern readers but were unknown or ignored by Homer. Examples. Other repeated phrases can be longer in form, as in ‘the plan of Zeus was fulfilled’ (Iliad 1.5). Conjoining the epithet "swift Achilles" in this simile, it describes Achilles speed of stabbing Hector while comparing it to a hound quickly jumping on a fawn. Epithets are a tag word or adjective used to describe someone or something. battalion a large group of … Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. bastard not a pejorative term for an illegitimate child but more of a description. For example, Diomedes' aristeia occurs in Book V; Achilles' aristeia ends the Iliad. Epithets are used in The Iliad to refer to both Greeks and Trojans. There are some to refer to groups, such as the ‘bronzed-armoured Achaeans’, or ‘Trojans, breakers of horses’. This takes place when Apollo sends a plague on Agamemnon and his people because Agamemnon refused to give Chryseis back to Calchas. FUNCTION OF THE EPITHET. TYPES: When describing a person, it may indicate . The epic poems of Homer were first sung, even before they were written down two millennia ago. Iliad 7.327–334, adapted from Sourcebook. [4] So might this be an example of how an epithet can be “unpacked” as a micro-narrative? For example, ‘Achilles, son of Peleus’, ‘Apollo, son of Zeus’, or ‘Agamemnon, son of Atreus’. The fact that they were meant to be experienced through hearing meant that repeated words, or combinations of words, were a way of holding listeners' attention and creating consistent characterization. Myth, in constant retelling, changes its form constantly.

a) Origin ... whereas the 'Iliad' needs the stimulus provided by a simile.)

Epithets are used because of the constraints of the dactylic hexameter (i.e., it is convenient to have a stockpile of metrically fitting phrases to add to a name) and because of the oral transmission of the poems; they are mnemonic aids to the singer and the audience alike.
Epithets were widely used in earlier times to help the reader visualize the characters and bring color and vividness to the narrative.

The epithets applied by Virgil are an example of an attitude different from that of Homer, for whilst Odysseus is poikilios ("wily"), Aeneas is described as pius ("pious"), which conveys a strong moral tone. Start studying Epithets in the Iliad. Athenais the only one described as glaucopis'grey-eyed'. Nowadays, good writings rely on good description rather than on epithets. An epithet that has become a cliché because if its excessive use in earlier translations of The Odyssey is "rosy-fingered Dawn." An epithet describes a person, place, or thing in such a away that it helps in making its characteristic more prominent than it really is. Author has 1.2k answers and 2.6m answer views Many epithets relate to lineage (son of, usually). e.g. Homeric epithets are used strategically. She is called thea glaukopis Athene'goddess grey-eyed Athena' and also Pallas Athene'Pallas Athena'. The epithet is used to denote a certain characteristic in a person or a thing, which the reader can identify with.
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